Hybridization- and tag-based technologies have elucidated the involvement of multiple genes and pathways in pathological conditions, providing insights into the expression of thousand of coding and noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs. However, the introduction of Next-Generation Sequencing, particularly of RNA-Seq, has overcome some drawbacks of previously used technologies.
Identifying, in a single experiment, potentially novel genes/exons and splice isoforms, RNA editing, fusion transcripts and allele-specific expression are some of its advantages.
RNA-Seq has been fruitfully applied to study cancer and host-pathogens interactions, and it is taking first steps for studying neurodegenerative diseases (ND) as well as neuropsychiatric diseases. In addition, it is emerging as a very powerful tool to study quantitative trait loci associated with gene expression in complex diseases. This paper provides an overview on gene expression profiling of complex diseases, with emphasis on RNA-Seq, its advantages over conventional technologies for studying cancer and ND, and its limitations.
- Costa V, Aprile M, Esposito R, Ciccodicola A. (2012) RNA-Seq and human complex diseases: recent accomplishments and future perspectives. Eur J Hum Genet [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]