Organisms do not exist isolated from each other, but constantly interact. Cells can sense the presence of interaction partners by a range of receptors and, via complex regulatory networks, specifically react by changing the expression of many of their genes. Technological advances in next-generation sequencing over the recent years now allow us to apply RNA sequencing to two species at the same time (dual RNA-seq), and thus to directly study the gene expression of two interacting species without the need to physically separate cells or RNA.
Here, researchers from the Hans-Knoell-Institute discuss the latest studies in interspecies interactions made possible by dual RNA-seq, ranging from pathogenic to symbiotic relationships. They summarize state-of-the-art experimental techniques, bioinformatic data analysis and data interpretation, while also highlighting potential problems and pitfalls starting from the selection of meaningful time points and number of reads to matters of rRNA depletion. A short outlook on new trends in the field of dual RNA-seq concludes this review, looking at sequencing of non-coding RNAs during host-pathogen interactions and the prediction of molecular interspecies interactions networks.
Application of dual RNA-seq for different kinds of interspecies interactions. RNA of interacting species is isolated and sequenced without physical separation. Subsequently raw reads are separated in silico.