Transcriptome analysis paints a comprehensive illustration of the genetic background of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia

rna-seq

Recent advances in the genetic understanding of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have improved clinical outcomes in pediatric patients. However, ∼40% of patients with pediatric AML relapse, resulting in a relatively low overall survival rate of ∼70%. The objective of this study was to reveal the comprehensive genetic background of pediatric AML.

A team led by researchers at Yokohama City University Hospital performed transcriptome analysis (RNA sequencing [RNA-seq]) in 139 of the 369 patients with de novo pediatric AML who were enrolled in the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 trial and investigated correlations between genetic aberrations and clinical information. Using RNA-seq, they identified 54 in-frame gene fusions and 1 RUNX1 out-of-frame fusion in 53 of 139 patients. Moreover, they found at least 258 gene fusions in 369 patients (70%) through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and RNA-seq. Five gene rearrangements were newly identified. Among the remaining 111 patients, KMT2A-PTD, biallelic CEBPA, and NPM1 gene mutations were found in 11, 23, and 17 patients, respectively. These mutations were completely mutually exclusive with any gene fusions.

RNA-seq unmasked the complexity of gene rearrangements and mutations in pediatric AML. These researchers identified potentially disease-causing alterations in nearly all patients with AML, including novel gene fusions. These results indicated that a subset of patients with pediatric AML represent a distinct entity that may be discriminated from their adult counterparts. Based on these results, risk stratification should be reconsidered.

Shiba N, Yoshida K, Hara Y, Yamato G, Shiraishi Y, Matsuo H, Okuno Y, Chiba K, Tanaka H, Kaburagi T, Takeuchi M, Ohki K, Sanada M, Okubo J, Tomizawa D, Taki T, Shimada A, Sotomatsu M, Horibe K, Taga T, Adachi S, Tawa A, Miyano S, Ogawa S, Hayashi Y. (2019) Transcriptome analysis offers a comprehensive illustration of the genetic background of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Blood Adv 3(20):3157-3169. [article]

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